Instalacija softvera za početnike

Napravio sam ovaj tutorijal otprilike pre dve godine. Nije baš kompletan ali u svakom slučaju mislim da može da posluži. :slight_smile:

Installing software with synaptic package manager:

  1. Open synaptic package manager
    From the menu, or with this terminal command:
gksudo synaptic
  1. Click Reload to to download the latest package lists from the repositories.
  2. Search for software in the search box.
  3. Right click each software you want to install and mark them for installation.This will mark additional dependencies automatically.
  4. After marking for installation, click on Apply to start downloading an installing all the marked applications.

PPA method:
PPA - Personal Package Archives

  1. Search for PPA’s with google. Type something like “ppa for app
    For example: ppa for qmplay2, ppa for firefox
  2. Open the terminal and add PPA address
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:whatever_the_address_ is
  1. Update package lists from the repository.
sudo apt-get update
  1. Install an application with synaptic or use the terminal method.
    Make sure those PPA’s are trusted. For example if some sites recomend them. You don’t want to install software from an untrusted source.
    Also make sure to add only stable version of a PPA.
    Another way to add PPA’s is with GUI tool, enter:
software-properties-gtk --open-tab=1

Then click on Add and type in the PPA.
When the PPA is added proceed to the software installation.

Installing applications with Terminal:

  1. Open the terminal and type in
sudo apt-get update
  1. Install the application, instead of ‘name’ type in application’s package name
sudo apt-get install name

Optional: Instead of apt-get you can use apt (sudo apt install name) or aptitude (sudo aptitude install name)
If you know a certain aplication’s name but you don’t know the exact package name of that application so you can install it, you can find the exact package name with apt-cache or aptitude:

apt-cache
The apt-cache command line tool is used for searching apt software package cache.
If you haven’t done this allready, open your terminal and type:

sudo apt-get update

To list all the available packages, type this command:

apt-cache pkgnames

You can pipe the output of this command to less or more

apt-cache pkgnames | less
apt-cache pkgnames | more

Less allows you to scroll from within even a non-scrollable terminal, more prints a page then you press enter to bring up every line after that. (type q to quit)
To find out the package name and it’s description, use the “search” flag.
For example, you can search for gnome-mines.

apt-cache search gnome-mines

This is the output:

gnome-mines - popular minesweeper puzzle game for GNOME gnomine - popular minesweeper puzzle game for GNOME (transitional package)
To display all packages starting with word “fire” ( you can use whatever) type:

apt-cache pkgnames fire ... firefox firefox-locale-zh-hant firefox-locale-csb firefox-locale-zu firefox-mozsymbols firebird2.5-super-dbg firedns firebird2.5-common firehol firefox-globalmenu firefox-locale-ast firebird2.5-examples
If you want to display package version number, check sums, size, installed size, category… use show:

apt-cache show firefox

To check dependencies for specific packages use showpkg.

apt-cache showpkg firefox

The stats sub command will display overall statistics about the cache.

apt-cache stats

aptitude
You can use ncurses interface (menu-like command line interface) or search through cli (command line interface).
To run aptitude with ncurses interface:

aptitude

If you don’t know what you are doing don’t use aptitude with NCURSES interface!
Seaching with CLI method:
This lists all avaiable packages.

aptitude search ~T | less

p -package is not installed
c -the package was deleted but its configuration files remain on the system
i -installed packages
v -virtual packages
A -package was automatically installed
This lists installed packages:

aptitude search ~i | less

This matches any package which is purely virtual: that is, its name is provided by a package or mentioned in a dependency, but no package of that name exists.

aptitude search ~v | less

This matches any installed package which can be upgraded

aptitude search ~U | less

Lists all firefox packages:

aptitude search firefox | less

This will list all packages containing word “fire”:

aptitude search fire | less

This will list all installed packages containing word “fire”:

aptitude search ~ifire | less

To display detailed information about package use show flag:

aptitude show firefox

Installing .deb packages:
If you downloaded .deb package from the internet there are two methods available to install software.

  1. Find the .deb package double click .on it,(or type gdebi-gtk in the terminal and open the file with gdebi package manager) and click install.
  2. Open the terminal, change the working to the directory that contains the .deb file
cd path_to_the_directory_that_contains_the_.deb_file

Example: If you saved it in /home/user/Downloads type cd /home/user/Downloads
This will list all .deb files in the directory, it will help you with the next step because you will need .deb file’s name.

ls *.deb

Install it with this, just change “filename” to the deb package name.

sudo dpkg -i filename.deb

Installing .run files
Open the terminal, change the working to the directory that contains the .run file

cd path_to_the_directory_that_contains_the_.run_file

Make the file executable

chmod +x filename.run

Run the file

./filename.run 

or if it needs a root permision

sudo ./filename.run

Installing .sh files

cd path_to_the_directory_that_contains_the_.sh_file
chmod +x filename.sh  
./filename.sh 

if it needs a root permission

sudo ./filename.sh

Installing from source code
If you downloaded .tar .tar.bz tar.bz2 or even .zip archive from the internet these archives contain source code,
and you will have to compile that source code in order to install that software.
First install build-essential

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install build-essential -y
  1. Navigate to the directory where you downloaded archive and extract the archive
cd path_to_the_archive

Use this command to extract a .tar.gz file:

tar -xzvf filename.tar.gz

Or use this command to extract a .tar.bz2 file:

tar -xjvf filename.tar.bz2

Instead of extracting the archive with the Terminal, you can open the directory with file manager and use Xarchiver or any other application to do this.

  1. Enter the extracted directory, it will be the same as the archive filename.
cd filename
  1. Once you’re in the extracted directory run:
./configure

If it fails, it will tell you to install the dependencies. Install them by hand:

sudo apt-get install whatever_it_tells_you

or use auto-apt or build-dep to resolve dependancies
Note that some applications may not use ./configure. Check the “README” or “INSTALL” file in the application’s extracted folder for more specific instructions.
Repeat ./configure, and if it fails again install dependencies, and so on untill ./configure completes successfully.
4. Once ./configure completes successfully, you’re ready to compile.
Compile:

make

After this command finishes, the program is successfully compiled.
5. Use this command to install it to your system:

sudo make install
  1. Note: Programs you install this way won’t be automatically updated even if they contain security vulnerabilities.
    it’s a good idea to stick with distribution’s official packages or the ppa.

How to uninstall software you installed from source code:
cd into the directory you compiled the application an then enter:

make uninstall

or

sudo make uninstall

If the app was installed as root.

But this will work only if the developer of the package has taken care of making a good uninstall rule.
In the future to avoid that kind of problems try to use checkinstall instead of make install when you compile an aplication whenever possible.
It will create and install a deb file that you can then uninstall using your favorite package manager.
To install checkinstall, enter:

sudo apt-get install checkinstall

Instead of

sudo make install

you will use

sudo checkinstall

The installed package can then also easily be removed via Synaptic or via Terminal.

Mogao si bar da prevedeš na naš jezik ako ništa drugo. Što se synaptica tiče on je old schoold. Ja ga godinama ne koristim nemam potrebe sve što mi treba instaliram direktno iz terminala, eventualno dodam neki repo,
Nekad je synaptic bio nezamenljiv, ali sad većina distroa ima svoje softver centre koji nude jako lepši i detaljniji prikaz.

Da ne bude da kudim, lepo što si se potrudio, samo eto zameram ti što ako si već odnegde prepisao, mogao si bare da prevedeš sa engleskog na naš jezik.
Ne zameri na konstataciji, nije zlonamerno već u cilju što bogatijeg sadržaja foruma.

Isn’t this that part of the forum for the posts in the English language? :smiley: Section ‘Help, support & chat’

Sinaptic je još uvek jedan od najboljih što se tiče funkcija koje nudi. Sve zavisi od ličnih prefrerencija korisnika. Sve može da se uradi i pomoću terminala što se vidi iz ovog tutorijala.

Prepisao sam eto priznajem (odakle: vidi sliku). Mrezelo me da prevodim… :smiley:
3NW2FZq.jpg
Što se tiče tehničke strane, dobro baratam stručnim izrazima na Engleskom jeziku, ali kada treba to prevesti na Srpski to mi je nezgodno otprilike kao i “Windows XP na Srpskom”. :smiley:
Sve sam uglavnom učio iz strane literature.
Ako možeš da prevedeš nemam ništa protiv. A i znam autora tako da sam skoro siguran da ti neće zameriti zbog prepisivanja. :smiley: